3 Phase Voltage Measurement Using Arduino


The first block, the Frequency Detector, works out what the. Also a 24 volt battery is charged with a 12 volt solar panel using MPPT with. At all times, USE AN ISOLATION TRANSFORMER FOR SAFETY! Future Developments. Power Factor. The Measurement of Current and Voltage 5. 3V on the Arduino to Aref on the Arduino. Three-phase meter The Energy Meter described here was developed using an Arduino, a real-time clock (RTC) and three current trans-10 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE AND SYSTEMS, VOL. Mains Voltage Sensor circuit. when 100A flow through primary 1 turn wire the secondary coil will have 50mA. Speed Control Of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Arduino 3- Draw 1- the diagram to control three phase induction motor speed control lo 21 a2 23 a b с Vo 01 02 03 2-the best circuit of Armature Voltage Control: SPh Full-wave half controlled rectifier AD 4. , and Sul, S. To induce faults manually in the kit, fault switches are used. This provides more accurate sampling using a 3. i want to vary. The bridge generate 3 phase voltage to supply asynchronous motor. The upper end of the common mode voltage range is VCC −1. Where microprocessor-based smart sensor shall collect 3-D vibrations; and these stored data in microcontroller can be sent to third party devices (Laptop, PC etc. MATLAB/Simulink and Hardware Design of Three-phase Voltage Source Inverter for 120° mode has been done and it is use to drive 1H. The board provides 6 PWM signals for the IPM or IGBT Inverter and also brake signal. If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. P Three-phase Induction Motor. This is an 8-bit, 16 MHz board that works at 5V, with 14 digital input/output pins and 6 analogue pins. To calculate reactive and active power for a connected load, three physical quantities are required: the voltage, u, the current, i, and the phase shift between them, \(\varphi _{ui}\). In an R-C circuit, the current I will lead the applied voltage as shown in the phasor diagram. You will also need a means to safely attenuate and measure the line voltage and another means to measure the load current of any equipments connected. a potentiometer sink), use an N-channel FET as a voltage controlled resistor. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). The SCT013 sensors are current transformers, instrumentation devices that provide a measurement. There are also systems where phase current measurements between IGBTs and Ls (and perhaps DC voltage measurement) are used to estimate network voltage well enough that separate network voltage measurement is not required. PLEASE BE CAREFUL IF YOU'RE USING THE POWER LINE Hello, and welcome to another tutorial, this one is about measuring Alternating Current (AC), using ACS712 I'm using the 30Amps version which is ACS712 30A, and our lovely Arduino Uno board, I tried to add an OLED screen but unfortunately ended up breaking it while shooting the tutorial so I switched to the LCD, but below you'll find the. The solution is to use two resistor as voltage dividers to reduce the voltage slightly so the maximum voltage to the pin is 0. A non intrusive low cost Arduino-based three phase sensor kit for electric power measuring Abstract: This article presents a kit to collect data of electric loads using a device that measures single-phase data and and second device that measures the input of three-phase main power supply of a house. muhammad ikhsan 8:12 pm, April 18, 2018. For Files [Schematics + PCB + Codes + Proteus Simulation] [email protected] In 2-level and 3-level inverter, the output waveform of inverter is stepped square wave. For this application an external 2. The way I do it is to use an insolated probe for each phase. Automatic power factor corrector 50 | P a g e 4. comPlease Like Share & Subscribe. As you can see in last two post about sine waves (How to generate a sine wave from arduino or atmega 328 and How to generate two phase sine waves with arduino) is not as hard as you think to generate such signals so, in this post. Arduino SimpleFOClibrary supports two types of BLDC motors: BLDC motors. When using a voltage divider with the same resistance value (R1 = R2), the voltage drop on one resistor will be half of the connected voltage. Three-phase meter The Energy Meter described here was developed using an Arduino, a real-time clock (RTC) and three current trans-10 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE AND SYSTEMS, VOL. Control Design of a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter for PV Applications A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering by Haoyan Liu Harbin University of Science and Technology Bachelor of Engineering in Automation, 2012 May 2016. Read the article in Resources > Building Blocks about 3-phase systems to see why your sketch does not work, then use the 3-phase sketch which you will find on GitHub. Capacitance Measurement Each Arduino capacitance meter relies on the same basic property of capacitors- the time constant. No matter which cable (brown or blue) and no matter which cable direction (from left or right) I chose: the measurement results on the serial monitor always led to identical measurements. Stepper motors. output voltage must not be more then 4. Using these resistors, you can measure voltages up to 24V. Voltmeter measure high voltage with arduino. Another advantage of using the three-phase control method is that the same drive-hardware topology can be used to control a three-phase induction motor. With three wattmeters, total power is the algebraic sum of the three readings under all conditions of load and power factor. If need to calibrate meter, use calibration instrument which has accuracy better than 0. The three-phase power meter reference design is used for measurement and registration of active and reactive energy in three-phase networks for direct connection. 1 List of components for the current sensor 29 3. so can u give me solution how to make zmpt101b module for measure 3 phase ac Voltage (Line to Line / 380V) or can u give me some advice to use another sensor or module? in this project i use arduino. We then map it to a range of 0 to 100 using the useful Arduino map function. 56us per sample. circuit theorycircuit, 3 phase pure sine wave inverter arduino forum, microcontroller based variable frequency power inverter, three level pwm single phse to three phase inverter using, three phase motor drive using space vector pulse width, vf control of 3 phase induction motors using pic16f7x7, three phase inverter. Be aware that this device represents an interface between 240 V grid AC power and the 5V Arduino. Search: Phase Measurement Using Arduino. Working of Arduino based AC Voltmeter: 1. The value derived from the map function is then used to set the motor speed. Power Transmission Engineer and founder of "Power Technologies Inc" Lionel Barthold Explains how 3 phase, 6 phase, and 12 phase power works, advantages, disadvantages, and hopes for the future. In this tutorial, I am going to measure DC current using Acs712 Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor and arduino uno. The AC voltage that we get from home supply is around 310 volts peak to peak or 220V RMS. It has an input bias current of 0. All you have to do is connect vcc of the module to 5v of the Arduino GND to ground of the Arduino and vout to analogue pin 0 of the Arduino. P Three-phase Induction Motor. A three phase induction motor is basically a constant speed motor so it's somewhat difficult to control its speed. These sensors are available in three ranges: 5A, 20A and 30A. so can u give me solution how to make zmpt101b module for measure 3 phase ac Voltage (Line to Line / 380V) or can u give me some advice to use another sensor or module? in this project i use arduino. Ch-1; Phase Voltage [200:1], Ch-2; Line. 9 kohm resistor and a 10 kohm resistor to create a 10:1 divider. Grove system is Seeed very own initiative, allowing for you to pair the Grove - EMG Sensor with other sensors, shields, modules through plug-and-play! You still need to solder the Myoware Muscle Sensor if you want to use it with Arduino. In general, all ac voltage sources vary from fluctuation in ac voltage over power distribution systems. 1: Connection diagram to measure the three-phase power with one wattmeter. Safety Precautions 3. [email protected] As per the request the first diagram below shows a single phase PWM sine wave inverter using an Arduino feed for the PWMs. #ACVoltageMeasurement #ACVoltageMeasurementUsingArduinoYou will learn how to make Three Phase AC Voltage Measurement using Arduino. ) of the circuit when selecting the input/output range. I know that I cannot feed 230v to the microcontroller. Go back to Three phase power measurements ↑ Three Phase Three-Wire Connection (Three Wattmeter Method) Although only two wattmeters are required to measure total power in a three-wire system as shown earlier, it is sometimes convenient to use three wattmeters. Titu Bhowmick, Dharmasa, [6] proposed an. From previous tests I have been asked to share the electrical connection of the meter and the load, this is the connection used in my tests, this configuration is the same for the meters PZEM-004 and PZEM-004T. In this article, we are presenting a tutorial on how to interface LM35 and Arduino along with its program. A major cause of voltage unbalance is the odd distribution of single-phase loads, that can be continuously changing across the three-phase power system. For some time I wanted to buy a single-phase electricity consumption meter, a few months ago I got Peacefair Reference PZEM-004 meter, its price seemed affordable, it has the advantages of being a non-invasive meter in the electrical circuit and has a communication protocol to request data such as Active Instantaneous Power "kW", Voltage "V", Amperage "A" and Active Power. P Three-phase Induction Motor. The angle φ is obtained from tan-1 φ, and the cosine of this angle gives the power factor of the load. Step down voltage is obtained on l. 0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. ) of the circuit when selecting the input/output range. When the program starts, it prompts you to give the values to control the speed of the motor. 1V for better resolution. Residentially zoned areas are not normally run in a true 3 phase system. I am using an arduino to measure voltage and current and eventually get the power readings. Search: Phase Measurement Using Arduino. +V - The VCC or positive supply voltage, usually 3. The board provides 6 PWM signals for the IPM or IGBT Inverter and also brake signal. the resolution of the motor (Step per revolution) = 360/step angle or 360/0. The input voltage to it is 0 to 5v. D is a rectifier diode, like 1N4001 or whatever you want. IC 7404 only outputs rectangular waves where arduino can measure easily compare to analogue waves. 4V heating cycles. We can use these sensors with a processor, like Arduino, to measure the intensity or power consumed by a load. Can you tell me how to measure 3 different voltages using arduino and how to compare them with a predefined reference value? Reply Delete. 5V, because 2. P Three-phase Induction Motor. This DIY AC wattmeter module used for single-phase power monitoring up to 1000V AC voltage. This is low enough to measure it using a Sirius high voltage module with an input. #ACVoltageMeasurement #ACVoltageMeasurementUsingArduinoYou will learn how to make Three Phase AC Voltage Measurement using Arduino. 1: Circuit diagram of millivolt meter. The MAX78630 provides up to six analog inputs for interfacing to voltage and current sensors. Ch-1; Phase Voltage [200:1], Ch-2; Line. The Arduino controller is used to produce the pulse width modulation (PWM) signals. ( Following my own style, I'd refer to already published materials whenever it's possible ). Check connections of L1, L2, L3; T1, T2, T3 (used for giving 3-phase input to VFD and connecting motor to it) and wires coming out of M0, M1 and GND. As per the request the first diagram below shows a single phase PWM sine wave inverter using an Arduino feed for the PWMs. The Arduino sense the rising and decreasing voltage on pin A0 which is connected between 1K ohm and 220 ohm resistors. 1 V, so the "COM" voltage must be approximately 0. For low AC voltage (mili volts) measurement precision rectifier is used as diode knee voltage is 0. Frequency 100Hz. No matter which cable (brown or blue) and no matter which cable direction (from left or right) I chose: the measurement results on the serial monitor always led to identical measurements. Arduino UNO. Direct interface with current output current transformers. 8234 for phase 2 and 12. Also a 24 volt battery is charged with a 12 volt solar panel using MPPT with. At all times, USE AN ISOLATION TRANSFORMER FOR SAFETY! Future Developments. 5 mm audio jack where you can plug in mating connector and connect to Arduino. Instead we use open source Arduino platform which is easy to program and debug. The programs below puts out two square waves one for each half cycle, 180 degrees out of phase. Speed Control Of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Arduino 3- Draw 1- the diagram to control three phase induction motor speed control lo 21 a2 23 a b с Vo 01 02 03 2-the best circuit of Armature Voltage Control: SPh Full-wave half controlled rectifier AD 4. LED indication for individual phase voltage. The first block, the Frequency Detector, works out what the. ok im using arduino mega 2560 to control the speed of a dc motor. This prototype is based on the excellent open source project OpenEnergyMonitor. Energyboard module is a 3 Phase full SOC energy analyzer that can compatible with all development kits like arduino. The Measurement of Current and Voltage 5. In general, all ac voltage sources vary from fluctuation in ac voltage over power distribution systems. Shareef and M. Can someone give me some help on this? please help me English is not my mother tongue. MATLAB/Simulink and Hardware Design of Three-phase Voltage Source Inverter for 120° mode has been done and it is use to drive 1H. Therefore, a low-cost wireless DAQ-device prototype was fabricated using Arduino Uno and a high-resolution analog-to-digital converter to perform real-time measurements of RH. i have used three separate voltage divider circuits. Design software. Working of Arduino Wattmeter. If you want, you can use three PZEM004T boards and make a 3 phase energy meter. 47 kV = V L-L_secondary of transformer. Arduino Based Power Factor Correction 5 programming and debugging. As per the request the first diagram below shows a single phase PWM sine wave inverter using an Arduino feed for the PWMs. Portable Arduino - Based LCR - Meter Nina Jetchkova Djermanova, Jivko Gospodinov Kiss'ovski and Vasil Atanasov Vatchkov Abstract - An Arduino based portable LCR meter is designed, using the impedance converter AD5933 for measuring the reactance. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). Procedure a. It's been used in the energy sector for decades. , and Sul, S. This causes the maximum amplitude of the voltage is 2. Learn how to use Rotary Encoders with an Arduino, both as controls and to measure the speed of a gear motor. when measuring two or all phase-neutral supplies, i am getting mixed voltage values like 350V,440V respectively. ok im using arduino mega 2560 to control the speed of a dc motor. A 16×2 LCD connected to the Arduino board is used to display voltage. I know that I cannot feed 230v to the microcontroller. I am currently working on a project, where I want to measure the voltage and current in a 3-phase system with an Arduino Uno. This causes the maximum amplitude of the voltage is 2. The voltage VR is in phase With I, and the voltage V will lag the voltage E. Analysis of AC voltage measurements. On the other end the sensor have 3. ESP8266_ZMPT101B_Base. The pressure, P, is in either kPa or Pa depending on the conversion direction. With an Arduino ADC resolution of 0 to 1023 it would give me a steps of approximately 10mA. As per the request the first diagram below shows a single phase PWM sine wave inverter using an Arduino feed for the PWMs. The Arduino is the brain of the circuit that calculates the voltage based on the ADC value using the program, which is displayed on LCD1. Arduino AC voltmeter code: The following Arduino code measures the RMS value of the input AC voltage by detecting the maximum value of the half wave and then divide it by square root of 2 (√2). - January 16, 2021 | January 16, 2021 - Solarduino. Read the article in Resources > Building Blocks about 3-phase systems to see why your sketch does not work, then use the 3-phase sketch which you will find on GitHub. it is recommended that whatever you connect to the A/D have an output impedance of 10k or less for best accuracy. A Mach-Zehnder modulator is an interferometer that features phase control of the light by the electro-optic effect, see Fig. The DHT22 is powered with 3. For protection of control board (Arduino Board), a variable resistor is used i. Features of Three Phase AC Voltage Measurement using Arduino: Can measure AC voltage of any amplitude. It can be easily programmed, erased and reprogrammed at any instant of the time. The DHT22 is powered with 3. In order to obtain maximum torque per ampere, the stator current is kept at 90. Single AC clamp can measure current flowing through a single wire in a non-invasive way. how can i isolate the three phase. Firstly, we will see a difference amplifier method to design a voltage sensor using an operational amplifier. Can you tell me how to measure 3 different voltages using arduino and how to compare them with a predefined reference value? Reply Delete. In the sensor part of the circuit, there are two areas which are responsible for measuring voltage and current. The Arduino Nano V3. Speed Control Of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Arduino 3- Draw 1- the diagram to control three phase induction motor speed control lo 21 a2 23 a b с Vo 01 02 03 2-the best circuit of Armature Voltage Control: SPh Full-wave half controlled rectifier AD 4. Using these resistors, you can measure voltages up to 24V. In this scenario, the microcontroller should be reprogrammed to output sine voltages with 120-degree phase shift to each other, which drives a three-phase induction motor. Note: The plug 1 Meter power PZEM-004T, can be connected to the measuring point, or it is also connected to another point 110/220VAC from another part. Plug in a small light bulb (100W or so) on each phase and see what load is displayed. So: Vrms = Vmax/√2. Power Measurements for. +V - The VCC or positive supply voltage, usually 3. When using a voltage divider with the same resistance value (R1 = R2), the voltage drop on one resistor will be half of the connected voltage. muhammad ikhsan 8:12 pm, April 18, 2018. The shield can be directly interfaced with current transformers and voltage leads. 1) Power the ZMPT101B with (5V/GND), do not add AC voltage, measure the (Signal/Gnd) pins with a multimeter (DC Voltage), the voltage should be around 2. Being an AC measurement to do it with Arduino we have to create a virtual ground by a voltage divider because we can measure only positive values, so that the intermediate value is 2. One connection is done with. 1 List of components for the current sensor 29 3. The phasor of the B-phase voltage V B is drawn 120º after V A, which puts it at the bottom left of the diagram. INTRODUCTION The modern era of power electronics began in 1958, when the General Electric Company introduced a commercial thyristor, two years after it was invented by Bell Telephone Laboratory. Portable Arduino - Based LCR - Meter Nina Jetchkova Djermanova, Jivko Gospodinov Kiss'ovski and Vasil Atanasov Vatchkov Abstract - An Arduino based portable LCR meter is designed, using the impedance converter AD5933 for measuring the reactance. About 12 fault switches are used which are arranged in three rows with each row having 4 switches. 75X of the micro-controllers rating. A USB connection (for communi-cation with the computer) and a power jack (for. Voltage Doubler Circuit schematic using 555, op amp & AC to DC. This provides inputs that can be independently switched to select a voltage range of 0 - 2. As a result, the program code for measuring single-phase AC voltage. In this tutorial, I am going to measure DC current using Acs712 Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor and arduino uno. Plug in a small light bulb (100W or so) on each phase and see what load is displayed. It enables quick evaluation and prototyping of energy and power quality measurement systems with the ADE9000. To use with the code unchanged, connect as following: Gnd goes to ground, 3. It is a hassle-free easy to use board, just connect the 3 phase brushless motor, connect the power supply and feed PWM to control the speed of the motor. Three wattmeter method is used to measure power in 3 phase, 4-wire circuits. Vout = 187500 / 37500. It enables three-phase energy meters using shunts, assuring complete immunity to dc and ac magnetic fields and current sensing. Guaranteed by design. Control Design of a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter for PV Applications A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering by Haoyan Liu Harbin University of Science and Technology Bachelor of Engineering in Automation, 2012 May 2016. 1 BLOCK DIAGRAM. For protection of control board (Arduino Board), a variable resistor is used i. this Bioimpedance will be done ( i. Our device contains three parallel voltage dividers to be able to measure up to three sensors at the same time (Fig. The Arduino board can be powered from a standard 9V battery pack, as usual. I use the shunt in low-side mode connected to a differential amplifier with Arduino-compatible output with internal reference, therefore with ADC overall voltage measurement range equal to 1. The current sensor section uses a current transformer, while the voltage sensor uses a. I was keen to minimise the resistance in the circuit so the. comPlease Like Share & Subscribe. While transmitting logic zero the transmitter fully suppresses the carrier frequency and hence consumes only low power in battery operation. SW - The pushbutton switch output. To measure the phase, time the difference in rising edges. Power Measurements for. Using Three Single Phase Wattmeters to Measure Power in a Three Phase Four Wire Circuit_____ 49 7D. Using a potential transformer with Arduino. Arduino Mega 6-PWM for 3-Phase | Arduino Speed Control of 3-Phase Subscribe share and Like my videos. The total power for the three phases is the algebraic sum of the three wattmeter measurements, as each meter is in essence measuring a single phase of the three. A breadboard and some single core wire. Users may use Arduino, microcontroller, or discrete circuit to generate PWM for the speed controller. The oscilloscope is a very powerful tool that has many functions. In the sensor part of the circuit, there are two areas which are responsible for measuring voltage and current. And the motor speed is control by using the driver and three-phase inverter circuits. 0:00 / 4:47 •. Mustapha}, journal={ARPN journal of engineering and. 2 Overview: The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328. Corpus ID: 18938178. Measure AC Apparent Power, AC Real power* and AC RMS voltage* 3 x single-phase CT current sensor inputs (100A / 24KW @ 240V max) 1 x high sensitivity single-phase CT current sensor input channel (18. i want to vary. As a result, the program code for measuring single-phase AC voltage. 1] This only works as long as the voltages between themselves and the loads from the three phases are exactly the same. The Teridian™ 78M6631 is a highly integrated 3-phase power measurement and monitoring system-on-chip (SoC), with a 10 MHz 8051-compatible MPU core and Single Converter Technology® containing a 22-bit delta-sigma converter and 32-bit compute engine (CE). You can use a cheap power supply such as this, which can simultaneously provide both 5 V and 3. The input voltage to it is 0 to 5v. The communication between Host and processor works via a Serial Interface RS485 or RS232. 3 Signal measurement and display _____ 27 5 DISCUSSION to create a voltage source with DAC and Arduino Uno; Reactance stores energy and causes phase difference between voltage and. Vout = 5 Volt. 1000n, angle. Show individual phase voltage. There are also systems where phase current measurements between IGBTs and Ls (and perhaps DC voltage measurement) are used to estimate network voltage well enough that separate network voltage measurement is not required. Corpus ID: 32921968. My battery used for storing the power from the solar panel is rated 6v, 5. A breadboard and some single core wire. P Three-phase Induction Motor. Operation of single-phase ZMPT101B voltage sensor. But however when i am getting the readings from the analog input and connect it to my power VI the power factor remains 1or -1. 3v microcontroller, applying more than 3. With three wattmeters, total power is the algebraic sum of the three readings under all conditions of load and power factor. 3V/GND), no AC voltage -> measure -> it should be half 3. Once all the connections are made you just need to upload the code to the Arduino and open the serial monitor and the voltage will be displayed. Show activity on this post. You will now need to adjust the scaling factors defined in line 8 accordingly: double calib [3] = {11. Please take care of the. The value derived from the map function is then used to set the motor speed. This provides more accurate sampling using a 3. LED (green led ) acts as a zener to limit the input voltage to the analog input of the Arduino. This project uses boost converter to perform MPPT; however MPPT can also be performed using buck, buck- boost converter. The Arduino Nano V3. This project made using MC3PHAC from NXP Semiconductor. ESP8266_ZMPT101B_Base. This technique utilizes a microfabricated metal line deposited on the specimen to act as a resistive heater. Mustapha}, journal={ARPN journal of engineering and. When the program starts, it prompts you to give the values to control the speed of the motor. It's been used in the energy sector for decades. EXPERIMENT 1. Control Design of a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter for PV hot scholarworks. You're signed out. What is Three Wattmeter Method? Definition: A 3 wattmeter method is used to measure power in 3 phases using a 4 wire system which is based on Blondel's theorem. 5V or 0 - 25V. int inPin = 3; // voltage connected to analog pin 3, e. The total power for the three phases is the algebraic sum of the three wattmeter measurements, as each meter is in essence measuring a single phase of the three. Controlling a motor with an Arduino is relatively easy. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. Next, this paper will further focus on the design and implementation of single-phase DVRs to mitigate voltage sag at the source side and connect to a number of the linear/non-linear load. So for a value of 545 the division voltage = (5/1023) * 545 = 2. sensors Article A Smart Voltage and Current Monitoring System for Three Phase Inverters Using an Android Smartphone Application Mohannad Jabbar Mnati 1,2,*, Alex Van den Bossche 1,3 and Raad Farhood Chisab 4 1 Department of Electrical Energy, Metals, Mechanical Constructions and Systems, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 913, B-9052 Zwijnaarde, Gent, Belgium; alex. The value derived from the map function is then used to set the motor speed. To instantiate the inline current sensor using the Simple FOC library just create an instance of the class InlineCurrentSense. Ac voltage measurement using Arduino: In this article, we will see how to measure ac voltage using Arduino and the same project can also be used for AC voltage peak detection that is an AC voltage detector circuit using Arduino Uno. There are various types of energy meters, which are classified as digital energy meter, electronic energy meter, wattmeter, three-phase energy meter, single-phase energy meter, AC power measurement meter, and so on. This hookup reliably tests frequency and phase angle but not phase sequence. Step Two - Assemble the electronics. As you may well know, Arduino's analog inputs can be used to measure DC voltage between 0 and 5V (when using the standard 5V analog reference voltage) and this range can be increased by using two resistors to create a voltage divider. Remember that the phasors rotate in a counterclockwise direction, so lagging phasors are clockwise from the reference phasor. For low AC voltage (mili volts) measurement precision rectifier is used as diode knee voltage is 0. The solution is to use two resistor as voltage dividers to reduce the voltage slightly so the maximum voltage to the pin is 0. it's about interfacing an AD5933 chip, with an Arduino Uno to make a body Impedance measurement and then, show the information on an I2C Lcd. Hello! Thanks for the good works you have been publishing here. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. Power in a Nonlinear System Driven by a Sinusoidal Voltage Waveform 4. A two pole two way toggle switch selects the range and also signals to the Arduino to tell it which range is selected, so that the readings can be correctly formatted. I'm not using an MQ7 on its own, I've got one on a Gas Sensor v1. That being said, there is a wide range of different motors and what you have on hand can be completely different. Speed Control Of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Arduino 3- Draw 1- the diagram to control three phase induction motor speed control lo 21 a2 23 a b с Vo 01 02 03 2-the best circuit of Armature Voltage Control: SPh Full-wave half controlled rectifier AD 4. The analogue reference voltage is changed to internal 1. To solve this we connect the supply voltage to the AREF pin. Ch-1; Phase Voltage [200:1], Ch-2; Line. The three-phase power factor is defined by the same single-phase equation since the relative angle between the voltage and current is equal in all three phases of a balanced three-phase system. If you do not know how to instal a library or use the library manager in Arduino IDE, you can check Installing Additional Arduino Libraries. Number of Phase 4. Digital Power Meter (DPM) is a 3-phase AC professional electrical measurement & display device to determine AC electrical parameters including Voltage, Current, Power, Energy, and Power Factor. 3 Component lists to develop and construct a gate driver 35 4. About Measurement Phase Arduino Using. Configuration parameters in both cases are: 19200 baud (default value) 1 stop bit. +: Place one end of a wire at the + pin on the rotary encoder to the. The frequency is usually between 50 - 60 HZ. Guo [13] used opto-. An inrush current limiter is a component used to limit inrush current to avoid gradual damage to components and avoid blowing fuses or tripping circuit breakers. The best quality measurement for Voltage, Current and power will be from using modules and instrumentation that offers direct measurement in the module, as with the NI 9227, NI 9246, or NI 9247. The period for a 60 Hertz sine wave is 16. Arduino can get damage if voltage greater than 5v is fed to it. Monitoring and controlling the industrial motor parameters remotely using. Since writing up instructions on how to build a simple Arduino home energy meter which measured the energy consumption for a single phase, I've had a number of people ask about modifying it to be a 3 phase energy meter. ) High Voltage Power Supply (MC34063, step-up) Low Voltage Power Supply (MC34063, step-down) VB 408 Replacement; Leomod, Power Supply for ±15 V, 1 A; Powermod, a Power Supply with the LM317/LM337; Samroimod - A 32 V / 1 A Power. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. Hi everybody, I'm new here, and I would like to have some informations about a project we are trying to make for our school. 0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. 5V or 0 - 25V. Stepper motors. As you may well know, Arduino's analog inputs can be used to measure DC voltage between 0 and 5V (when using the standard 5V analog reference voltage) and this range can be increased by using two resistors to create a voltage divider. October 27, 2021. Search: Phase Measurement Using Arduino. Be aware that this device represents an interface between 240 V grid AC power and the 5V Arduino. I know that I cannot feed 230v to the microcontroller. The 1K ohm is the known resistor value and the 220 ohm resistor utilized for discharging the capacitor while measurement process takes place. 6K, which slightly reduced resultant voltage range at the Arduino to below 3. It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs), 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz ceramic resonator, a USB connection, a power jack, an ICSP header, and a reset button. A three-phase motor must be wired based on the diagram on the faceplate. Power in a Linear System Driven by a Periodic Voltage Waveform 3. 6K, which slightly reduced resultant voltage range at the Arduino to below 3. Note the warnings! The proposed circuits can easily be adapted to the 0-5V range for the Arduino. If you want, you can use three PZEM004T boards and make a 3 phase energy meter. The phase currents are measured by each wattmeter. 1V for better resolution. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). in this experiment, we will use a 90. SW: Place one end of a wire at the SW pin on the rotary encoder to any digital pin on the Arduino (S ky Blue wire — ) 4. It lets you drive two DC motors with your Arduino board, controlling the speed and direction of each one independently. 5V even when zener diode burnout. The oscilloscope is a very powerful tool that has many functions. Control Design of a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter for PV Applications A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering by Haoyan Liu Harbin University of Science and Technology Bachelor of Engineering in Automation, 2012 May 2016. Remember that the phasors rotate in a counterclockwise direction, so lagging phasors are clockwise from the reference phasor. Key Measurements. com find submissions from "example. A 3 Vrms sine wave has a peak voltage of 3. This prototype is based on the excellent open source project OpenEnergyMonitor. Portable Arduino - Based LCR - Meter Nina Jetchkova Djermanova, Jivko Gospodinov Kiss'ovski and Vasil Atanasov Vatchkov Abstract - An Arduino based portable LCR meter is designed, using the impedance converter AD5933 for measuring the reactance. represent by the voltage measurement module, the current. 0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. I soldered all components onto this Proto Shield for Arduino MEGA, which also fits perfectly to Due. the resolution of the motor (Step per revolution) = 360/step angle or 360/0. The SCT013 series are sensors of non-invasive, current transformer s that measure the intensity of a current that crosses a conductor without needing to cut or modify the conductor itself. 4 V, it doesn't represent any measurement and the values on this range are outputted during the pre-heating phase of the sensor, which has a duration of 3 minutes. The transistor acts like a switch, controlling the power of the motor. 5KW @ 240V max) 1 x RJ45 input for connecting DS18B20 temperature sensors. 5KW @ 240V max). As the ARDUINO analog pin input voltage is restricted to 5V I designed the voltage divider in such a way that the output voltage from it should be less than 5V. The bridge generate 3 phase voltage to supply asynchronous motor. 73 ( ) ( ) K line to line K phase e e. If you had 230 volts per phase, then max voltage is 398 volts. What is AC Power Measurement? The electrical power can be AC power or DC power, energy meter is used for measuring power. Hi, I have the following requirement: Identify/measure the voltage values in the 3 phase lines using a Arduino Uno microcontroller. The setup should look something like this image: Figure 2 Arduino Board Setup Code to Measure CO 2 Using Arduino MQ 135 Senso r The final code to execute the experiment is in A ppendix A. I was keen to minimise the resistance in the circuit so the. In addition, a reference sensor (HIH-4000-001 RH. 5v to a voltage lower than 5V. There are many Arduino boards available in the market like Arduino UNO, Arduino Nano, Arduino Mega, Arduino lily pad etc. LED indication for individual phase voltage. About 12 fault switches are used which are arranged in three rows with each row having 4 switches. It can be easily programmed, erased and reprogrammed at any instant of the time. Now we will explain the measurement three-phase power measurement using three wattmeter method. After powering Arduino for the first time you need to press button PB1 and hold it till you see at least 6A on display to set the maximum current, as internal EEPROM of your Arduino is empty and no values are stored. Search: Phase Measurement Using Arduino. The design also features a low power consumption of 25 mW for a gain stage of 200 as compared to a discrete solution. All you have to do is connect vcc of the module to 5v of the Arduino GND to ground of the Arduino and vout to analogue pin 0 of the Arduino. One ADC can measure the current that passes through a shunt, a second one can measure the phase to neutral voltage using a voltage divider and a third one can measure an auxiliary voltage or a temperature sensor. Three Phase AC Voltage Measurement using Arduino September 16, 2019 September 17, 2019 Engineeering Projects Today, in this article, you will learn how to make Three Phase AC Voltage Measurement using Arduino. We know a voltmeter should not load the circuit it is measuring so we want a high input impedance. If need to calibrate meter, use calibration instrument which has accuracy better than 0. This measuring instrument indicates directly the average power dissipated by the load. They use the concept of ECHO to measure the distance. Control Design of a Single-Phase DC/AC Inverter for PV Applications A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical Engineering by Haoyan Liu Harbin University of Science and Technology Bachelor of Engineering in Automation, 2012 May 2016. Show individual phase voltage. Electronic phase shift measurement for the determination of acoustic wave DOA using single MEMS biomimetic sensor. The PC817B opto-coupler contains an infrared light emitting diode optically coupled to a phototransistor, packaged in a 4-pin DIP. After your resistors, there are peaks of -3. The shunt performance follows most of the previously mentioned requirements. Procedure a. As such, R3 and R4 need to be of equal resistance. No matter which cable (brown or blue) and no matter which cable direction (from left or right) I chose: the measurement results on the serial monitor always led to identical measurements. Multiplier = 227 V / 2. This class takes as a parameter shunt resistance value shunt_resistor, amplification gain gain and two or three ADC channel pins depending on the available measuring hardware that you might have. Three phase is simply 3 phases - with one ZMPT101B per phase each only sees 220V. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. A Mach-Zehnder modulator is an interferometer that features phase control of the light by the electro-optic effect, see Fig. Using One Single Phase Wattmeter to Measure Power in a Three Phase Four Wire Circuit _____ 48 7C. The board provides 6 PWM signals for the IPM or IGBT Inverter and also brake signal. There are many Arduino boards available in the market like Arduino UNO, Arduino Nano, Arduino Mega, Arduino lily pad etc. (8a); Gate pulses generated using Arduino Microcontroller. The two-wattmeter method is still used to calculate total power. The AC power is given by the product of RMS voltage value. To know whether you can still measure the magnitude and phase difference accurately given your project specifications, please check the sampling rate or conversion time of the ADC of the board you will use. Working of Arduino based AC Voltmeter: 1. Shunts do have limitations in that they do not have isolation, which is required for use in three-phase applications. To perform a drive output measurement, a power analyzer is wired to the output in a three phase, three-wire configuration. Phase one, phase two and phase thee measurement circuit are the same. φ = 3 × W 1 − W 2 W 1 + W 2. Voltage is measured by the help of a voltage divider circuit. https://doi. 3 V outputs in different pins. The SCT013 sensors are current transformers, instrumentation devices that provide a measurement. Shareef and M. So, in order to get a 12V supply fro. For some time I wanted to buy a single-phase electricity consumption meter, a few months ago I got Peacefair Reference PZEM-004 meter, its price seemed affordable, it has the advantages of being a non-invasive meter in the electrical circuit and has a communication protocol to request data such as Active Instantaneous Power "kW", Voltage "V", Amperage "A" and Active Power. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. Steps for complete motor control. this Bioimpedance will be done ( i. This is low enough to measure it using a Sirius high voltage module with an input. The actual voltages vary greatly and people just round off to 110 volts, 220 volts, 400 volts when the actual voltage on any given day can be plus or minus 10 volts on a 110 line and could be plus or minus 17 volts on a 3 phase line. Design and building a single-phase smart energy meter using Arduino and RF communication system. The Arduino's programming language makes PWM easy to use; simply call analogWrite (pin, dutyCycle), where dutyCycle is a value from 0 to 255, and pin is one of the PWM pins (3, 5, 6, 9, 10, or 11). [3] proposed an integrated architecture to offer automation in measurement of power using Arduino Uno and Raspberry Pi. I had already published one blog devoted RMS voltage measurements on full band 20 - 20 000 Hz audio signals. The pressure, P, is in either kPa or Pa depending on the conversion direction. Instead of using a voltage regulator, I power the heater of the MQ7 via a TIP122 transistor, fed a PWM signal from the Arduino to give 5V and 1. 8V is smaller than 0V, which is also outside minimum voltage rage of the Arduino. The other side. The pin #9, #10 and #11 are the PWM pins have the capability to produce analog voltage level as described before; it produces pulse at 490 Hz by default. To solve this we connect the supply voltage to the AREF pin. 0879 = 4096 steps/revolution. 3 module, which I think has the load resistor wired in (no datasheet available though, so I'm just guessing!). • Measure PHASE and DELAY between the two signals using inbuilt functions of the scope EQUIPMENT To carry out this experiment, you will need: • TBS1KB - Digital Oscilloscope from Tektronix • Arduino Duemilanve or Uno board • Voltage probe (provided with oscilloscope) / BNC cables • Breadboard and connecting wires. The Measurement of Single Phase Power and Power Factors 6. The communication between Host and processor works via a Serial Interface RS485 or RS232. About Measurement Phase Arduino Using. of the 3rd Int. Arduino library and application examples are provided to simplify implementation of. -2016 width we have effectively measured phase difference Schematic in figure is simplified is. The Arduino sense the rising and decreasing voltage on pin A0 which is connected between 1K ohm and 220 ohm resistors. The role of IC 7404 is to eliminate noise from the input, so that the noise won't propagate to arduino which might give false readings and IC 7404 can tolerate short spike voltage which will not pass to arduino pins. Power in a Linear System Driven by a Periodic Voltage Waveform 3. This technique utilizes a microfabricated metal line deposited on the specimen to act as a resistive heater. 0 controller and Bluetooth HC-05 are a cheap microcontroller and wireless device, respectively. The 3 rows represent the 3 phases namely R,Y and B. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. Once all the connections are made you just need to upload the code to the Arduino and open the serial monitor and the voltage will be displayed. To calculate reactive and active power for a connected load, three physical quantities are required: the voltage, u, the current, i, and the phase shift between them, \(\varphi _{ui}\). 73 ( ) ( ) K line to line K phase e e. Control of three phase inverter for AC motor drive with small DC-link capacitor fed by single phase AC source. A lot of time was saved in developing this library by using the alternative Arduino-IDE Sloeber. For measuring the voltage, a voltage divider circuit is implemented using a 10KΩ and a 2. You can even make it as a three phase charging point. P Three-phase Induction Motor. h, and Adafruit_SSD1306. I had already published one blog devoted RMS voltage measurements on full band 20 - 20 000 Hz audio signals. Keywords: Arduino, MATLAB software, IGBT, three phase controlled rectifier, Rectifier. 5V or 0 - 25V. So in order to provide a three phase they will do a split phase using two transformers and provide you with a delta, or the three phase with 120V to ground on two phases and 240V to ground on the other. The Arduino controller is used to produce the pulse width modulation (PWM) signals. Oomlout has a good Arduino + breadboard bundle here £29. 0325} In this case they were 11. monitoring and controlling of three phase induction motor using ZigBee and IOT. Show activity on this post. Screwdriver wire stripper wire nuts you must match the wiring to the both the motor nameplate specific. P Three-phase Induction Motor. Srividyadevi et al [12] use arduino microcontroller to measure power and energy of a single phase system. To measure the phase shift, calculate the time difference (in milli seconds) as shown in the picture and then use the calculator below to calculate the phase shift. The best quality measurement for Voltage, Current and power will be from using modules and instrumentation that offers direct measurement in the module, as with the NI 9227, NI 9246, or NI 9247. 1) Power the ZMPT101B with (5V/GND), do not add AC voltage, measure the (Signal/Gnd) pins with a multimeter (DC Voltage), the voltage should be around 2. This document covers four methods and summarizes the advantages and limitations of each. Arduino UNO is an open source platform which is used to develop electronics project. DS_6631_056. So, when measuring high voltages in the range of up to 2000 V, this simple transducer reduces the voltage to 1000 V. This stage is used for bifurcating the Arduino PWM pulses into complementary high/low logic pairs so that the a bridge 3 phase inverter driver IC IC IRS2330 can be. This DIY AC wattmeter module used for single-phase power monitoring up to 1000V AC voltage. Using a potential transformer with Arduino. https://doi. The shield can be directly interfaced with current transformers and voltage leads. 50V reference may be used, or if that. A module for the star-delta starting of 3 phase induction motor was built using an Arduino Uno and Arduino Nano. In addition, the Arduino is also used to send all measurement to a PC through a serial port for monitoring the measured data graphically. Arduino -compatible energy and power quality measurement shield with. 3-Phase Power-Measurement IC. The speed is adjusting to get the nearest value based on set point rpm speed. so this sensor can be used with the Arduino without any problem. The voltage at analogue pin A0 should not exceed 1V. +V - The VCC or positive supply voltage, usually 3. 3V/GND), no AC voltage -> measure -> it should be half 3. The light is guided in an electro-optic material, such as LiNbO 3. To know whether you can still measure the magnitude and phase difference accurately given your project specifications, please check the sampling rate or conversion time of the ADC of the board you will use. The RF module consists of a 433 MHz RF transmitter and receiver modules. The phase voltage, line voltage, CMV and line current are recorded using Agilent MSO. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). when i measure any one of phase-neutral connection, the result of voltage is same as in external voltmeter. 3 Frequency Measurement: The frequency measured based on AC voltage signal of the zmpt101B sensor. The system can measure up to 600W power with corresponding energy consumption, though there is need for higher power measurement in so many power system applications. 6K, which slightly reduced resultant voltage range at the Arduino to below 3. For Files send mail at [email protected] It calculate power from the solar panel output and send it to Arduino for perturb and observe algorithm is to extract maximum power from the panel. Figure 1 A three-phase machine. He worked on experimental 6 and 12 phase power lines at his company. For PWM drives up to 30 A rms output current, the power analyzer can be wired directly into the drive output. 2V and running a ESP32 micro-controller at 3. 5V DC Voltage between AC sensor and Arduino: G > GND and S (Signal) > A0, Lamp circuit is independent of it: 220V (Europe). This meter measures the supply current through each phase using a CT (current transformer) and then does a few calculations to give you the current, power, maximum power and kilowatt hours consumed for each phase. An alternative to using CTs to measure current is using shunts. Digital Power Meter (DPM) is a 3-phase AC professional electrical measurement & display device to determine AC electrical parameters including Voltage, Current, Power, Energy, and Power Factor. Control circuit is not shown. Speed Control Of Three Phase Induction Motor Using Arduino 3- Draw 1- the diagram to control three phase induction motor speed control lo 21 a2 23 a b с Vo 01 02 03 2-the best circuit of Armature Voltage Control: SPh Full-wave half controlled rectifier AD 4. This prototype is based on the excellent open source project OpenEnergyMonitor. Contact for project - PROJECTRONICSPlot - 71, Bapuji nagar, Bhubaneswar, OdishaPlot - 159, Sreebhumi, Kolkata, West bengalPh - 9776414425/2Circuit price - 70. But the recommended maximum is 10 kohms for the ADC pins. In addition, the Arduino is also used to send all measurement to a PC through a serial port for monitoring the measured data graphically. 3V/GND), no AC voltage -> measure -> it should be half 3. The shield can be directly interfaced with current transformers and voltage leads. A breadboard and some single core wire. ) for further signal analysis. Similarly, using the unitary method, we can calculate the voltage for the 1 division it shows: 1 = 5/1023 В. The Measurement of Single Phase Power and Power Factors 6. Aakanksha, et al. P Three-phase Induction Motor. The low-line rectifiers provide the foundation for a variety of lower-voltage power systems to be developed by ABB, starting with its low-line GPS4830. 5V or 0 - 25V. Power in a Nonlinear System Driven by a Sinusoidal Voltage Waveform 4. For some time I wanted to buy a single-phase electricity consumption meter, a few months ago I got Peacefair Reference PZEM-004 meter, its price seemed affordable, it has the advantages of being a non-invasive meter in the electrical circuit and has a communication protocol to request data such as Active Instantaneous Power "kW", Voltage "V", Amperage "A" and Active Power. This frequency drives the two power BJ transistor stages alternately at the. What is Three Wattmeter Method? Definition: A 3 wattmeter method is used to measure power in 3 phases using a 4 wire system which is based on Blondel's theorem. So I have to step down this 6. h, Adafruit_GFX. I'm trying to learn/build a 3-phase system monitoring device based on Arduino Mega, which will allow the user to monitor 220V/50Hz 3-phase system voltage and current with phase sequence detection for the correct wiring order (L1, l2, l3). The Arduino is the brain of the circuit that calculates the voltage based on the ADC value using the program, which is displayed on LCD1. i want to vary. 0325} In this case they were 11. For Files [Schematics + PCB + Codes + Proteus Simulation][email protected] March 8, 2021 By Usman ali Butt. Hi all, I build a single phase inverter based on SPWM technique. Working of Arduino based AC Voltmeter: 1. The total power for the three phases is the algebraic sum of the three wattmeter measurements, as each meter is in essence measuring a single phase of the three. This code uses SPI. In the loop we read the potentiometer position by measuring the input voltage on the analog pin using the Arduino analogRead function. 6 V so we can't use the 5 V output on the Arduino and have to use the 3 V. The input common mode voltage or either input signal voltage should not be allowed to go negative by more than 0. With this solution a more stable and less noisy reference is obtained with a resolution of 1100/1024 = 1. For an AC-AC adapter with an 9V RMS output, a resistor combination of 10k for R1 and 100k for R2 would be suitable: peak_voltage_output = R1 / (R1 + R2) x peak_voltage_input = 10k / (10k + 100k) x 12. 73 ( ) ( ) K line to line K phase e e. Once we successfully interface arduino and lm35, we will go on to build a temperature display using arduino and a 16×2 LCD module which constantly monitors temperature around the measurement field/range of LM35 and displays the same on LCD module. One connection is done with. A Mach-Zehnder modulator is an interferometer that features phase control of the light by the electro-optic effect, see Fig. The solution is to use two resistor as voltage dividers to reduce the voltage slightly so the maximum voltage to the pin is 0. P Three-phase Induction Motor. The impedance of this voltage must be reasonably low compared to R2. In general, all ac voltage sources vary from fluctuation in ac voltage over power distribution systems. A probe is taped to each phase of the power to be monitored. Voltage measurements. It transmits the reading of voltage, current, power factor and kiloWatts to utility and customer through GSM Sim900D module and Arduino. Instead we use open source Arduino platform which is easy to program and debug. i have used three separate voltage divider circuits. The input voltage to it is 0 to 5v. 0 as the microcontroller to measure the results from three voltage and three current sensors and then send this data, after calculation, to the Android smartphone device of an end user using Bluetooth HC-05. int inPin = 3; // voltage connected to analog pin 3, e. 5V or 0 - 25V. Medical Warehouse Monitoring and Control System Using LabVIEW 52. ) High Voltage Power Supply (MC34063, step-up) Low Voltage Power Supply (MC34063, step-down) VB 408 Replacement; Leomod, Power Supply for ±15 V, 1 A; Powermod, a Power Supply with the LM317/LM337; Samroimod - A 32 V / 1 A Power. A step-down voltage circuit: this circuit was connected between the three-phase high voltage system and the microcontroller. All of this instrumentation operates at reduced voltage, derived from step-down transformers. It is important to specify right adc channels for right driver/motor phase. For currents above this level, an external shunt or current transducer may be required. 1: Connection diagram to measure the three-phase power with one wattmeter. The switching logic is implemented in a microcontroller (Arduino) and the driver circuit is designed using TLP350 (optocoupler). 0325} In this case they were 11. As a backup, the three lamps are deployed to verify phase sequence. 3V, or 33 Ohms if supply voltage is 5V. The other side. The first diagram is wired using six NOT gates from the IC 4049. IC 7404 only outputs rectangular waves where arduino can measure easily compare to analogue waves. The design also features a low power consumption of 25 mW for a gain stage of 200 as compared to a discrete solution.